Dolphins and jazz musicians; it's a small world
Even less than six degrees of separation divide the jazz musicians and dolphins of one group from the other.

The packs of dolphins behave almost exactly like groups of musicians or scientists.
The packs of dolphins behave almost exactly like groups of musicians or scientists.

It is known that, according to some sociologists, each person is connected to every other person on Earth by six degrees of separation. But, according to two Spanish scholars, in relatively small "worlds", such as those of jazz players of the 1930s, the steps to go from one person to another are less than 3. Analyzing a database called Red Hot jazz archive from 1912 to 1940, Pablo Gleiser and Leon Danon of the University of Barcelona discovered that guitarist Eddie Lang, despite having died at the age of 30, collaborated with 415 other musicians.
Although Lang is a recordman, the two Spaniards claim that the structure of these groups (be they musicians, scientists or actors) is made up of a few people who know practically everyone. Gleiser and Danon have also found that the world of jazz musicians also has some differences with other human communities, such as being in turn formed by distinct communities (in this case, black and white jazz musicians) that interact weakly.
Community in the sea. Likewise, even the dolphins studied by David Luseau of the University of Aberdeen have shown that they live in a small world. Marine mammals, in fact, usually swim in compact groups, in which almost everyone knows each other, but does not have great relationships with other groups. Unlike jazz musicians, however, in dolphins there are no "marginalized" individuals, that is, with few relationships with others. The group, in the jargon of sociologists, is therefore very "robust" and could survive even if many animals disappeared ..

(News updated August 11, 2003)